Vitiligo in children is a unique type of patients with vitiligo. Most clinical evidence confirms that its etiology and clinical characteristics are different from adults, such as the high incidence of segmental vitiligo, family history of autoimmune diseases, and Special effects on the psychological development of patients with vitiligo. Recent studies have found that the psychological and spiritual factors that affect the course of childhood vitiligo are mainly interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and terror. Therefore, effective psychological treatment and nursing intervention can help patients relieve their thoughts and worries, and effectively reduce or relieve physical and psychological pains until they are cured.
1. The onset and exacerbation of vitiligo in children
1.1 Neurological factors
Many scholars have found that patients with vitiligo have mental problems, and the psychological incidence of patients with vitiligo is 16.22%～37.63%. The skin lesions on the exposed parts of the head, face, neck, etc. form a strong contrast with the normal skin color, so the patient has a lot of psychological pressure, and then is in a state of interpersonal sensitivity, depression, fear, and anxiety. Children with vitiligo in different age groups are affected to different extents. Children under 6 years of age are relatively less affected, because this period of social scope is small and only confined to the family. School-age children over 6 years old, with the enhancement of aesthetic awareness, more people come into contact with them, and they are more sensitive to the self-evaluation of the surrounding people, especially their appearance directly affects the self-esteem and self-confidence of the children. In this state of mind, the human nervous and immune functions will be directly affected, which will aggravate the vitiligo.
For some children, trauma is a direct predisposing factor. After trauma, the skin nerve structure and function change, so that nerve mediators increase, tyrosinase consumption increases, melanin synthesis decreases, and vitiligo occurs. It is also possible that during trauma, some melanocytes are antigenic after being destroyed, producing melanocyte autoantibodies, and then attacking nearby melanocytes to form vitiligo locally. In clinical practice, the incidence of segmental vitiligo in children is found to be obvious. Higher than adults. The damage of various physical, chemical and biological factors can cause the skin of patients with vitiligo to induce isomorphic reactions, especially in children with vitiligo in the early advanced stage, which are prone to isomorphic reactions, which are factors that promote the development of vitiligo.
Vitiligo in children is common in children with poor diet, partial eclipse, and stunted growth. A reasonable and balanced diet is closely related to the health of children. Various trace elements and vitamins are important coenzymes for body metabolism, such as copper, zinc, selenium and other trace elements play a very important role in the process of melanin synthesis. The lack of trace elements and vitamins can lead to changes in the function and structure of various oxidases in the process of melanin synthesis, which in turn affects the synthesis of melanin. Unbalanced diet can induce or aggravate vitiligo.
Vitamin C is a commonly used drug in clinical practice. It is mainly used to supplement the deficiency of vitamin C, prevent colds, as an antioxidant and an auxiliary drug for the treatment of other diseases, and is currently widely used. In recent years, vitamin C has been added as a selling point in a variety of health products. The amount of vitamin C has become larger and larger, and the course of treatment has become longer and longer, causing some patients to develop or aggravate vitiligo.